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Project Tesla - Wendover

Original poster: "S&JY" <youngsters@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>

Here is a long article by Toby Grotz regarding the Wendover project.  I
can't recall the source of the article, and sorry the formating is lost.
Note the planned reliance on Dr. Corum's papers . . .  (The first few
paragraphs are not Wendover related, but I left them in because they
describe some of Golka's other interesting experiments)
--Steve Y.

Ball lightning
As a phenomenon, lightning blasts its attention upon us, but there is more
to lightning than just the intense flash and the ear-resonating noise that
is all too familiar. There is also ball lightning, known for a century, seen
by very few, and only recently produced in the laboratory by Robert Golka,
I first heard of ball lightning about 50 years ago. It occurs in many
varieties, yet has been mystifying scientists since it couldn't be
It has been described as a self sustaining light-emitting plasma-like ball
that moves along for seconds before disappearing with a bang. Lightning
balls have been reported to last as long as 30 s on submarines during WW II,
where high current switches are employed to transfer power between
batteries, or between batteries and generators. It is not St. Elmo's fire, a
discharge-like electrical phenomenon that is encountered on ships and
aircraft during atmospheric conditions that generate high electric
Golka uses a 150-kW transformer capable of providing 10,000 A at 15-V 60
cycles; thick 1-in. stranded wire leading into a plastic tank with water;
and a 1/4-in. thick 4 ¥ 6-in. aluminum plate. The wire and plate are short
circuited about 1/4 in. below the surface of the water and this produces 1/4
in. dia. fireballs. They sizzle and hiss and skim around on the surface,
occasionally taking to the air and leaving spiraling smoke trails that
suggest the balls are spinning.
Golka has seen these fireballs dance onto the floor and he reports them hot
to the touch. Their color is white with an aluminum electrode and yellow
with iron.
There is no theory for ball lightning, although in Golka's case his
fireballs consume the aluminum and may obtain their energy from the burning
of the metal.
Those readers who have witnessed ball lightning are invited to send me a
paragraph about their experience.
? Igor Alexeff, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee,
Knoxville, TN 37996.
? Robert Golka Jr., Phone: 508/586-8033.
? Richard Weiss, c/o SPIE, P.O. Box 10, Bellingham, WA 98227-0010.
Prof. Richard J. Weiss reports monthly on research in universities,
industry, and government.

Pictures of Golka's tesla coil in action in a large handover at Wendover,
Interesting historical overview of Robert Hull & company's development of
First hand accounts of ball lightning observations
Project Tesla

The objectives of Project Tesla are divided into three areas of
investigation. 1. Demonstration that the Schumann Cavity can be resonated
with an open air, vertical dipole antenna; 2. Measurement of power insertion
losses; 3. Measurement of power retrieval losses, locally and at a distance.
Methods A full size, 51 foot diameter, air core, radio frequency resonating
coil and a unique 130 foot tower, insulated 30 feet above ground, have been
constructed and are operational at an elevation of approximately 11,000
feet. This system was originally built by Robert Golka in 1973- 1974 and
used until 1982 by the United States Air Force at Wendover AFB in Wendover,
Utah. The USAF used the coil for simulating natural lightning for testing
and hardening fighter aircraft. The system has a capacity of over 600
kilowatts. The coil, which is the largest part of the system, has already
been built, tested, and is operational.

A location at a high altitude is initially advantageous for reducing
atmospheric losses which work against an efficient coupling to the Schumann
Cavity. The high frequency, high voltage output of the coil will be half
wave rectified using a uniquely designed single electrode X-ray tube. The
X-ray tube will be used to charge a 130 ft. tall,  $B3  (J vertical tower
which will function to provide a vertical current moment. The mast is topped
by a metal sphere 30 inches in diameter. X-rays emitted from the tube will
ionize the atmosphere between the Tesla coil and the tower. This will result
in a low resistance path causing all discharges to flow from the coil to the
tower. A circulating current of 1,000 amperes in the system will create an
ionization and corona causing a large virtual electrical capacitance in the
medium surrounding the sphere. The total charge around the tower will be in
the range of between 200-600 coulombs. Discharging the tower 7-8 times per
second through a fixed or rotary spark gap will create electrical
disturbances, which will resonantly excite the Schumann Cavity, and
propagate around the entire Earth. The propagated wave front will be
reflected from the antipode back to the transmitter site. The reflected wave
will be reinforced and again radiated when it returns to the transmitter. As
a result, an oscillation will be established and maintained in the Schumann
Cavity. The loss of power in the cavity has been estimated to be about 6%
per round trip. If the same amount of power is delivered to the cavity on
each cycle of oscillation of the transmitter, there will be a net energy
gain which will result in a net voltage, or amplitude increase. This will
result in reactive energy storage in the cavity. As long as energy is
delivered to the cavity, the process will continue until the energy is
removed by heating, lightning discharges, or as is proposed by this project,
loading by tuned circuits at distant locations for power distribution. The
resonating cavity field will be detected by stations both in the United
States and overseas. These will be staffed by engineers and scientists who
have agreed to participate in the experiment. Measurement of power insertion
and retrieval losses will be made at the transmitter site and at distant
receiving locations. Equipment constructed especially for measurement of low
frequency electromagnetic waves will be employed to measure the
effectiveness of using the Schumann Cavity as a means of electrical power
distribution. The detection equipment used by project personnel will consist
of a pick up coil and industry standard low noise, high gain operational
amplifiers and active band pass filters. In addition to project detection
there will be a record of the experiment recorded by a network of monitoring
stations that have been set up specifically to monitor electromagnetic
activity in the Schumann Cavity. Evaluation Procedure The project will be
evaluated by an analysis of the data provided by local and distant
measurement stations. The output of the transmitter will produce a 7-8 Hz
sine wave as a result of the discharges from the antenna. The recordings
made by distant stations will be time synchronized to ensure that the data
received is a result of the operation of the transmitter. Power insertion
and retrieval losses will be analyzed after the measurements taken during
the transmission are recorded. Attenuation, field strength, and cavity Q
will be calculated using the equations presented in Dr. Corum's papers.
These papers are noted in the references. If recorded results indicate power
can be efficiently coupled into or transmitted in the Schumann Cavity, a
second phase of research involving power reception will be initiated.
Environmental Considerations The extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in
the environment have several origins. The time varying magnetic fields
produced as a result of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents
are on the order of 30 nanoteslas. The largest time varying fields are those
generated by solar activity and thunderstorms. These magnetic fields reach a
maximum of 0.5 microteslas (uT) The magnetic fields produced as a result of
lightning discharges in the Schumann Cavity peak at 7, 14, 20 and 26 Hz. The
magnetic flux densities associated with these resonant frequencies vary from
0.25 to 3.6 picoteslas. per root hertz (pT/Hz1/2). Exposure to man made
sources of ELF can be up to 1 billion (1000 million or 1 x 109) times
stronger than that of naturally occurring fields. Household appliances
operated at 60 Hz can produce fields as high as 2.5 mT. The field under a
765 kV, 60 Hz power line carrying 1 amp per phase is 15 uT. ELF antennae
systems that are used for submarine communication produce fields of 20 uT.
Video display terminals produce fields of 2 uT, 1,000,000 times the strength
of the Schumann Resonance frequencies.9 Project Tesla will use a 150 kw
generator to excite the Schumann cavity. Calculations predict that the field
strength due to this excitation at 7.8 Hz will be on the order of 46
picoteslas. Future Objectives The successful resonating of the Schumann
Cavity and wireless transmission of power on a small scale resulting in
proof of principle will require a second phase of engineering, the design of
receiving stations. On completion of the second phase, the third and fourth
phases of the project involving further tests and improvements and a large
scale demonstration project will be pursued to prove commercial feasibility.
Total cost from proof of principle to commercial prototype is expected to
total $3 million. Interest in participation in this project may be directed
to the author. REFERENCES The following four papers were presented at the
1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium.
"The Transient Propagation of ELF Pulses in the Earth-Ionosphere Cavity", by
A-Ahamid Aidinejad and James F. Corum. "Disclosures Concerning the Operation
of an ELF Oscillator", by James F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum. "A Physical
Interpretation of the Colorado Springs Data", by James F. Corum and Kenneth
L. Corum. "Critical Speculations Concerning Tesla's Invention and
Applications of Single Electrode X-Ray Directed Discharges for Power
Processing, Terrestrial Resonances and Particle Beam Weapons" by James F.
Corum and Kenneth L. Corum. FOOTNOTES 1. Tesla Said, Compiled by John T.
Ratzlaff, Tesla Book Company, Millbrae, CA, 1984. 2. Dr. Nikola Tesla:
Selected Patent Wrappers, compiled by John T. Ratzlaff, Tesla Book Company,
1980, Vol. I, Pg. 128. 3. "The Disturbing Influence of Solar Radiation on
the Wireless Transmission of Energy", by Nikola Tesla, Electrical Review,
July 6, 1912, PP. 34, 35. 4. "The Effect of Static on Wireless
Transmission", by Nikola Tesla, Electrical Experimenter, January 1919, PP.
627, 658. 5. Tesla Primer and Handbook, Dr. James T. Corum and Kenneth L.
Corum, unpublished. Corum and Associates, 8551 ST Rt 534, Windsor, Ohio
44099 6. Colorado Springs Notes, 1899 - 1900, Nikola Tesla, Nikola Tesla
Museum, Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978, Pg. 62. 7. Van Nostrands Scientific
Encylopedia, Fith Edition, Pg. 899. 8. "PC Monitors Lightning Worldwide",
Davis D. Sentman, Computers in Science, Premiere Issue, 1987. 9.
"Artificially Stimulated Resonance of the Earth's Schumann Cavity
Waveguide", Toby Grotz, Proceedings of the Third International New Energy
Technology Symposium/Exhibition, June 25th-28th, 1988, Hull, Quebec,
Planetary Association for Clean Energy, 191 Promenade du Portage/600, Hull,
Quebec J8X 2K6 Canada FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT TESLA The Tesla Memorial
Society The Tesla Coil Builders Association % Nicholas Kosanovich % Harry
Goldman 453 Martin Road RD #6 Box 181 Lackawanna, NY 14218 Glenns Falls, NY
12801\ (716) 822-0281 (518 792-1003 The Tesla Book Company High Voltage
Press PO Box 1649 PO Box 532 Greenville, TX 75401 Claremont, CA 91711 ABOUT
THE AUTHOR Mr. Grotz, is an electrical engineer and has 15 years experience
in the field of geophysics, aerospace and industrial research and design.
While working for the Geophysical Services Division of Texas Instruments and
at the University of Texas at Dallas, Mr. Grotz was introduced to and worked
with the geophysical concepts which are of importance to the proposed
project. As a Senior Engineer at Martin Marietta, Mr. Grotz designed and
supervised the construction of industrial process control systems and
designed and built devices and equipment for use in research and development
and for testing space flight hardware. Mr. Grotz organized and chaired the
1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium
and was President of the International Tesla Society, a not for profit
corporation formed as a result the first symposium. As Project Manager for
Project Tesla, Mr. Grotz aided in the design and construction of a
recreation of the equipment Nikola Tesla used for wireless transmission of
power experiments in 1899 in Colorado Springs. Mr. Grotz received his
B.S.E.E. from the University of Connecticut in 1973.