RE: Toroid breakout power requirements


There is a very complex relationship between power input and toroid size 
which determines the break out point of spark.  I doubt that it could be 
codified mathematically, except under rigidly control circumstances.  Since 
we are talking power, this would ultimately be controlled by the resonator 
and its inductance which creates the voltage collected on the toroid.  The 
rate of delivery of the power is controlled by the spark gap's rep rate. 
 All of these are variables in the overall equation.  Throw in the air 
density (pressure) and temperature, humidity,  local capacitive effects by 
nearby items, and the whole idea of computing this factor becomes a 
nightmare.  I find that the bulk of the resonator seems to also influence 
the power required for larger toroids to break out.  I am sure this relates 
to the self capacitance of the coil and related losses within the coil 
itself.  More complications.

It is obvious that an isolated toroid in free air would have a rather simple 
formula for breakout "voltage".  This is not the case, however, with bulk 
systems.   Power is required to reach a certain voltage within the 
resonator.  The bottom line is that some specific power input must be 
applied in a given system with given parameters before breakout can occur.

On our current system, maggy #11, which has a 45" toroid, we see sparks 
start to break out at about 4 KW.  The better the electrostatic field 
control within a system, the more power is required for breakout.  Note that 
grandpa's coils with zero electrostatic field control (needle point 
termnal), sparked with only a few watts.

Richard Hull, TCBOR
From: tesla
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Subject: Toroid breakout power requirements
Date: Monday, April 08, 1996 1:02PM