Re: Ionic propulsion/ pinwheel toroid
Tesla List wrote:
> I assume the air ions are negative ions.
Positive or negative. The effect is about the same.
> I am about to prove how dangerous a little learning can be. The mass of the
> is, as you write, very small. Mass e around 10 e -30 kg. But Newton's 2nd
> law must apply
> in ion propulsion so I am wondering how, and where is the 3rd law force-the
> reactive or opposite force?
The entire ions are repelled from the pinwheel tips, not just the
electrons. Ions move in one direction (you can feel the "electric wind"
if you use a DC supply (AC too?)), and the pinwheel points move in the
I was wondering about what is a negative ion. A positive ion is easy
to understand: Just an atom with one or more electrons missing. It
just stays in this way if there are no free electrons around.
A negative ion is an atom with one or more extra electrons. These
electrons don't have enough energy to leave the atom, so if they
are moved by the influence of an electric field they carry the atom
along with them. The force that attaches a free electron to a neutral
atom may be understood without quantum effects by simply assuming
that the presence of the electron induces a electric dipole in the
neutral atom, and that the resulting force keeps the electron there.
Exactly as a charged object attracts nearby neutral objects.
Antonio Carlos M. de Queiroz