# Re: stepped leaders

```Tesla List wrote:
>
> >From jim.fosse-at-bdt-dot-comFri Aug 23 22:40:59 1996
> Date: Fri, 23 Aug 1996 17:18:06 GMT
> From: Jim Fosse <jim.fosse-at-bdt-dot-com>
> To: tesla-at-pupman-dot-com
> Subject: Re: stepped leaders
>
> >big snip

>
> Could I interject a thought on this condition? Under this condition,
> the TC secondary IS acting like an unterminated transmission line with
> the attendant high SWR that this condition implies. (Standing Wave
> Ratio can be thought of as the ratio of forward power to reflected
> power) With no load at the end of the transmission line (no sparks at
> the discharge terminal) and all the power sent down to the far end of
> the secondary is reflected back to the near, driven, end.
>
> This reflected power is transformed by the transformer action of the
> TC secondary to TC primary coupling and is dissipated in whatever
> lossy components are in the primary circuit. Given most construction
> methods used by the coilers on this list, the primary is of low R, the
> cap is of low D, that leaves the spark gap as the losseist component.
> It starts dissipating the power of the system.
>
> One of my unanswered questions: is the output voltage of the TC
> secondary: a) strictly the input voltage multiplied by the turns
> ration of the secondary to primary? b)input voltage multiplied by the
> turns ratio multiplied further by the 1/4 wave transmission line
> properties of the secondary? or c)some combination?  I am waiting to
> measure this until I can build some type of metering scheme; field
> mill or HV resistive divider.
>
> If the answer is b or c, then the voltage across the spark gap is much
> greater under no load conditions than under a loaded condition because
> the reflected wave is of greater voltage that the simple turns ratio
> would provide and is transformed backwards only by the simple
> transformer action of the secondary:primary.
>
> Any thoughts on the transmission line voltage multiplication effect?
>
>         Regards,
>
>         jim

Jim,

The Corums have been on this angle for years now!  The TC step up, of
course, has never had anything to do with the turns count or ratio.
Resonant rise never works that way.  The Corums have produced elegant and
eloquent, mathematically rigorous papers for the transmission line/VSWR
voltage multiplication method.  (you have to get the back issues of the
proceedings of the ITS Symposia).

Richard Hull, TCBOR
```