Re: All about magnetism.

Gary, and all:

	If you want questions answered about what  paramagnetism and
diamagnetism, and ferromagnetism are, then read this post.

	Since this post isn't related to tesla coils directly, I submit it
cautiously, but I make a special request that Terry will let this one on
under the exception rule, since it's the type of thing coilers would be
interested in.  

	I've seen mentions of paramagnetic, and diamagnetic, and ferromagnetc,
and people asking what these are.  This is something I know a little
about, although I am always walking in someone's shadow, no matter what
the topic is.  That means there are probably people on this list who know
a lot more about this than I do, but I couldn't resist the opportunity to
yap and yap    :-)

	Anyway, according to the latest atomic theories, subatomic particles,
i.e. protons, neutrons, and electrons, have magnetic north poles and
south poles.  Usually, an atom has the right number and combination and
arrangement of these particles so that the atom doesn't have an overall
north pole or south pole.  But some atoms, especially some of the metals,
don't have that "right combination".

	If the atoms don't have that "right combination of particles", its
behavior follows one of the three following possibilities, all related to

	Paramagnetism means that the atoms' overall north pole and south pole
ordinarily point in random directions, but when immersed in a magnetic
field, they do weakly line up WITH the magnetic field.  You might say
that a compass is paramagnetic, since it lines up to "agree" with the
earth's magnetic field.  Oxygen, Platinum, and Sodium are some of the
elements that exhibit this behavior.

	Diamagnetism is the phenomenon that occurs when ordinarily random atoms
are immersed in a magnetic field, and the atoms suddenly line up AGAINST
the magnetic field.  If a compass were to "teeter totter" so that its
"north end pointed south", this would be diamagnetic behavior.  The
mechanism by which atoms point their north end south in magnetic field is
a mysterious and spooky behavior described by quantum theory, which is
REALLY complicated and definitely has nothing to do with tesla coils, so
I won't go in to it (email questions to me directly -- I love to be the
one ANSWERING questions for a change).  Mercury, Silver, Lead, and
Bismuth are some of the elements that exhibit this behavior.

	Ferromagnetism is the third type of magnetism, a little different that
the other two types.  Ferromagnetism ( Ferro, hence iron ) is the
phenomenon that is observed when a material maintains a magnetic north
pole and south pole long after (i.e. indefinitely after) being removed
from a magnetic field.  This happens when the atoms' magnetic north pole
and south pole are strong enough to maintain the ordered direction after
the magnetic field has been removed.  Iron, cobalt, nickle, and some
other transition metals exhibit ferromagnetic behavior.

paramagnetic, according to the information I have.  Copper is DIAMAGNETIC
(again according to the information I have).  I would think that, in
light of this, aluminum would help the magnetic field of a secondary, and
increase streamer lenght, but that is based on theories of physics, which
were meant to be proven wrong anyway.  I challenge somebody with lots of
money and time to please do an experiment proving this idea wrong  :-)

	Well, I have yapped and yapped.  I hope that this lecture has edified
someone, somewhere, and I expect red hot disagreements from everyone.  

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