Re: Safety FAQ is here -- draft, asking for comments.

Tesla List wrote:
> >From rwstephens-at-ptbo.igs-dot-netThu Aug  8 10:57:03 1996
> Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 23:20:57 -0500
> From: "Robert W. Stephens" <rwstephens-at-ptbo.igs-dot-net>
> To: tesla-at-pupman-dot-com
> Subject: Re: Safety FAQ is here -- draft, asking for comments.
> >>From MALCOLM-at-directorate.wnp.ac.nzTue Aug  6 20:29:40 1996
> >Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 08:14:43 +1200
> >From: Malcolm Watts <MALCOLM-at-directorate.wnp.ac.nz>
> >To: tesla-at-pupman-dot-com
> >Subject: Re: Safety FAQ is here -- draft, asking for comments.
> <snip>
> Malcom wrote,
> >     I just wanted to add a little note also: The coil operation
> >described therein describes what I'm now calling "mode 1" - sparks
> >and arcs are issued a la the break rate. I call the type of operation
> >Richard Hull recently described (several bolts/megabreak rate) "mode
> >2" operation (pretty close to real lightning). I'd be interested to
> >know whether others think this is a tenable classification. I've had
> >a close look at Richard Hull's Nemesis in action in the Nat
> >Geographic article. You can see the lightning-like discharges alright.
> >The sticking point about a possible operational classification that I
> >can't judge from that photo is the arc duration. For example, I'd say
> >that Richard Quick's coil as shown on his video to be operating in
> >mode 1.
> >Ideas/flames welcomed,
> >Malcolm
> Malcolm, Richard Hull, All,

Big Snip

 I have seen these white hot streamers connect and sit
> on a target for nearly a second or more in calm conditions.  They
> look just like a single streamer with no hint that they are composed
> of sequential ,  rapid rate, multiple components. I am only guessing
> that his is perhaps what Hull refers to.  I have also frequently seen the wind
> come up and tear my discharge into a horizontally displaced time oscillogram of
> the output waveform.  I'd swear that the multiple parallel streamers
> that I see form as the wind sweeps the arc channel sideways still
> represents one streamer for every rotary break pulse!  I am not aware
> that Hull ever operated his Nemesis machine outside in a stiff wind.
> Admittedly, when the wind is a blowin', the ion cloud around the
> toroid is not a collectin'.
> I merely wish to say that I think more research is needed here
> before we can really understand what is happening around the top end.
> As for your laudable attempt to create a performance category by merely
> observing the discharge, this may not be so easy as first imagined.
> Standardization system or not however, I'm sure no one would object
> to having their system performance classed as #1! ;-)
> Even if we don't come to understand the science (although I'm sure we
> will), just getting to the point of throwing long, white hot
> lightning bolts is a definitely neat level to achieve.
> Regards ,rwstephens.


Perhap I had not made myself clear.  Take a small one foot tall coil, put 
a door know on it.  Feed 1KW into it.  You will have 10,20,30 or more 
individual, unique and readily identifiable streamers (short, but 
unique).  A big coil with high power and a massive toroid will most 
normally never have more than one single unique arc at any instant in 
time!!  Maybe Two!  All of the pulses of the gap are feeding this one 
single unique channel only.  The arcs off of Nemesis would last a full 
second- 500+ pops of the gap!  

We have long ago photographed and noted the thin ribbons in a blown arc 
and have dubbed it the Banjo effect. -One pop, one ribbon- many pops one 
white hot arc of consectutive ribbons-  Never would I dream of implying 
that every single pulse of the gap goes anywhere other than to arc 
production!  The big toroid just supresses all arcs but one or two 
channels and directs all the energy along the ionized path by supplying a 
low impedance driver for the continued energy to the single white hot 

The arcs ultimately break, probably due to localized air heating and 
updrafts. (in still air.)  The toroid then imediately breaks down in 
another area and a white hot ribbon moves out, strikes and builds to a 
maximum often as many as three times waxing and waning in intensity.  (we 
have this lightning like effect on numerous slow-motion studies on 
released video tapes to the public.)  The longest recorded single arc 
channel, from Nemesis, lasted 38 video frames. (1.26 seconds) This had 4 
rises and falls over the time period, but all in the same arc channel.  
During this time the rotary struck about 690 arcs and dumped about 11,000 
joules of energy into the primary tank.  All this for one single arc 
channel!.... Yes... Made up of many, individual, multimegawatt, 
instantaneous pulses.

Richard Hull, TCBOR