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Also, I thought the RMS/Peak-to-peak voltage measurement went the other way. I know that for standard house current, the 120V is really an RMS (Root Mean Square = average) measurement, which would always be less than the peak voltage. Since house current is a sine wave, the peak voltage is sqrt(2) * RMS_voltage, and the peak-to-peak voltage is about 340V. I always assumed that a transformer that was rated at 12KV meant RMS volts? Re caps: one rule of thumb that I've heard is that your caps should be rated for at least 2.5 x your primary voltage. Also, the voltage across the caps can be many times the input voltage due to resonance effects, not just the supply voltage. Steve Roys Steven Roys (sroys-at-anchorage.ab.umd.edu)

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